Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
- Severe hypoxemia with a ratio of PaO2 to FIO2 less than 80 despite the application of high levels of PEEP and salvage therapies, as appropriate for at least 6 hours.
- ECMO may be considered after a shorter time interval if the ratio of PaO2 to FIO2 is less than 50.
- Uncompensated hypercapnia or excessively high plateau airway pressures, despite the best accepted standard of care for management with a ventilator
Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
- Hypercapnic respiratory failure due to acute exacerbation of asthma, COPD, or other chronic lung disease as a bridge-to-recovery may be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Lung Transplant Candidates
- Patients listed for lung transplantation at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Irving Medical Center may be placed on ECMO, when necessary, as a bridge-to-transplant.
- Patients with cardiogenic shock with underlying etiologies that include:
- Primary ischemic etiologies such as acute myocardial infarction
- Non-ischemic etiologies including fulminant myocarditis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, decompensated pulmonary hypertension
- Primary graft failure following cardiac transplant
- Patients with massive pulmonary embolism as a bridge to more definitive therapy
- In selected cases, VA-ECMO with advanced cardiac life support is initiated emergently to restore circulation during cardiac arrest in addition, a use known as extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR).