Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS):
An inflatable device that keeps urine from leaking when the natural urinary sphincter no longer works well.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH):
A condition in which the prostate becomes enlarged as part of the aging process.

Benign tumor:
A tumor that is not cancerous.

A procedure that uses electrodes to help people gain awareness and control of their pelvic muscles.

Bladder training:
A behavioral technique that teaches the patient to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate, and to urinate according to a schedule rather than urinating at the urge.

The placement of tiny radioactive pellets into the prostate gland. By utilizing ultrasound to place the seed pellets, damage to surrounding tissues is minimized.


A tube passed through the body for draining or injecting fluids.

Insertion of a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to allow urine drainage.

Contigen injections:
Contigen is a collagen material that can be injected just under the urethral or bladder neck mucosa (inside lining) to treat incontinence or leakage of urine.

A waste product that is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine.

Probes are placed in the prostate. The probes are then frozen which kills the prostatic cells.

A lump filled with either fluid or soft material, occurring in any organ or tissue. A cyst may develop for a number of reasons but is usually harmless unless its presence disrupts organ or tissue function.

Surgical removal of the bladder.

A flexible scope inserted into the urethra and then into the bladder to determine abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract.

Cystometrogram (CMG):
The insertion of a small rectal catheter and another tiny catheter through the urethra into the bladder to measure the pressure and capacity of the bladder. External anesthesia ointments are normally applied to the areas of catheter insertion.


A drug that increases the amount of water in the urine, removing excess water from the body; used in treating high blood pressure and fluid retention.


Electrical stimulation therapy:
A therapy using electrical stimulation through vaginal or rectal cones that cause the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. Electrical stimulation has been shown to increase urethral resistance, strengthen pelvic floor muscles, and inhibit bladder contractility (urgency, frequency, nocturia).


Habit training:
A behavioral technique with scheduled toileting at regular intervals on a planned basis. Unlike bladder training, there is no systematic effort to motivate the patient to delay voiding and resist urge.

Hormonal therapy:
A type of hormonal therapy involves the use of antiandrogens. An androgen is a male hormone needed for the production of testosterone. By depriving the cancer cells of the testosterone they need for growth, tumors regress in size and cellular activity.

A painless swelling of the scrotum caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle; commonly occurs in middle-aged men.

A surgical procedure to remove a hydrocele. A hydrocele is collected fluid in the membrane surrounding the testes.

A condition in which the pelvic floor muscles can no longer provide the necessary support to the urethra and bladder neck. As a result, the bladder neck drops when any downward pressure is applied and causing involuntary leakage. This condition is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence.


Interstitial cystitis:
A chronic condition characterized by a combination of uncomfortable bladder pressure, bladder pain, and sometimes pain in the pelvis, which can range from mild burning or discomfort to severe pain.

Interstitial laser:
A laser probe is placed within prostatic tissue and laser energy is then used to destroy prostatic tissue which makes urination easier.

Intravesical therapy (for interstitial cystitis):
Medications intermittently introduced directly into the bladder via a catheter.

Intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD):
A weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles to a point when the sphincter does not function normally regardless of the position of the bladder neck or urethra. ISD is a less common form of stress incontinence.

Irritable bladder:
Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause lack of control of urination.


Kegel exercises:
Exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which leads to more control and prevents leakage.


Surgery using a laparoscope (a slender, light-transmitting instrument) to visualize the internal organs through a small incision. Laparoscopy is generally less invasive than traditional surgeries and requires a shorter recovery period.


Malignant tumor:
A tumor that invades surrounding tissues and is capable of spreading to other areas of the body (metastasis). Left untreated, a malignant tumor is life threatening.

Microwave (targis):
A catheter is placed within the bladder and positioned within the prostate and an antenna emits microwaves. This procedure increases the passageway allowing for easier urination.

Mixed incontinence:
Having both stress and urge incontinence.


The surgical removal of one or both of the testicles.

Inflammation of a testicle.

Overactive bladder:
A condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress.


Pelvic muscle exercises:
Pelvic muscle exercises are intended to improve pelvic muscle tone and prevent leakage from of stress urinary incontinence. Also called Kegel exercises. (See biofeedback).

Perineal prostatectomy:
The removal of prostate through a perineal incision. The advantages are less blood loss, easier visualization of the bladder/urethral anastomosis and decreased recovery time because the incision does not involve muscle or any other vital tissue.

Periurethral bulking injections:
Injected implants are used to "bulk up" the area around the neck of the bladder allowing it to resist increases in abdominal pressure, which can push down on the bladder and cause leakage.

Postvoid residual (PVR) volume:
A diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination. Specific measurement of PVR volume can be accomplished by catheterization, pelvic ultrasound, radiography, or radioisotope studies.

Any of various oxygenated unsaturated cyclic fatty acids of animals that have a variety of hormone-like actions (as in controlling blood pressure or smooth muscle contraction).

A muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra. It secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the testicles) to form semen.

Surgical removal of the prostate.

Prostatic stent:
A stent (mesh tube inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent or counteract localized flow constriction) is placed through a cystoscope to push prostate tissue away from the passageway allowing for easier urination.

Inflammation of the prostate.

Also called transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT). A catheter is placed within the bladder and positioned within the prostate and an antenna emits microwaves. This procedure increases the passageway allowing for easier urination.

Pubovaginal sling:
A surgical procedure in which a man-made or cadaveric piece of material is placed under the bladder neck to support and immobilize. This technique improves sphincter function and decreases bladder neck movement, improving continence.

Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (greenlight/laserscope).

The presence of pus in the urine; usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection.


Radical retropubic prostatectomy:
The removal of prostate through an abdominal incision. The prostate is completely removed. The advantage is that the lymph nodes can be sampled at the time of the procedure.


Sling procedure:
Surgical method involving the placement of a sling, made either of tissue obtained from the person undergoing the sling procedure or a synthetic material, to treat urinary incontinence.

A ring of muscle fibers located around an opening in the body that regulates the passage of substances.

Stress test:
A diagnostic test that requires patients to lift something or perform an exercise to determine if there is urine loss when stress is placed on bladder muscles.

Stress urinary incontinence:
The involuntary loss of urine during period of increased abdominal pressure (i.e., laughing, sneezing, coughing, or lifting heavy objects).

Suprapubic/retropubic prostatectomy:
The removal of obstructing prostatic tissue through a supra-pubic incision (a cut below the belly button). The prostate is not wholly removed. Suprapubic prostatectomy requires incising the bladder to remove the obstructing tissue while a retropubic approach involves incising the prostatic capsule to remove the obstructing tissue. Both approaches utilize an abdominal incision.


Transient urinary incontinence:
Temporary episodes of urinary incontinence that are gone when the cause of the episode is identified and treated, such as a bladder infection.

Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT):
See prostatron.

Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA):
An instrument is placed into prostate tissue through cystoscope an tissue between is destroyed via thermal energy.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP):
A surgical telescope is used to core out the inside of the prostate (urethra) creating a larger channel making the passage of urine easier.


Underactive bladder:
A condition characterized by a bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration to effect bladder emptying in a normal timespan.

A flexible, fiber-optic instrument resembling a long, thin telescope is inserted through the urethra and bladder up to the ureter to visualize the tube, often used for retrieval of kidney stones.

A strong desire to void.

A group of physical and chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Urinary incontinence (UI):
Involuntary loss of urine sufficient to be a problem. There are several types of Ul, but all are characterized by an inability to restrain voiding.

Urge UI:
The involuntary loss of urine associated with a sudden and strong urge to void (urgency).

Urinary tract infection (UTI):
Infection caused by bacteria that invade the urinary system and multiply.

Urodynamic test (UDT):
Diagnostic tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function.


A type of cautery electrode that vaporizes prostatic tissue. This creates a larger prostatic channel which makes urination easier.

Varicocele embolization:
A procedure in which the varicocele is closed off (occluded) by means of a balloon catheter (flexible tube with a tiny detachable balloon), steel coil, and/or sclerosing (vessel-hardening) solution.

The cutting away of a varicocele.

A microsurgical procedure that uses a microscopic camera and very small operative tools to correct obstructions in the genital tract. The procedure requires removal of the blockage in the epididymis (the coiled tube that extends the length of each testis and connects with a larger duct - the vas deferens) and re-attachment of the epididymis to the vas deferens.

Vesica sling procedure:
A surgical sling procedure used to stabilize the bladder neck and provide support for the urethra using autologous or synthetic sling material.

Emptying the bladder or urinating.

Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology

Urological Care