Health Library Search

Health Library

Pregnancy-Related Problems


Top of the pageCheck Your Symptoms

Pregnancy-Related Problems

Overview

It's likely you'll be healthy during your pregnancy. You probably won't have any serious health concerns. But it's important for you to be aware of symptoms that may mean you have a more serious problem. Talk with your doctor about any concerns you have while you are pregnant. Then your health problems can be checked quickly.

Many minor problems of pregnancy can be managed at home. Home treatment is usually all that's needed to relieve mild morning sickness or discomfort from heartburn or constipation. You can also use home treatment for sleep problems, hip pain, hemorrhoids, and fatigue. If you have a problem and your doctor gives you specific instructions, be sure to follow those instructions.

If you have a family history of diabetes, you may get a type of diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). It's treated by watching what you eat, exercising, checking blood sugar levels, and maybe taking oral medicines or insulin shots to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may weigh more than normal. It's important to control your blood sugar to help keep your baby safe before and during delivery.

You may also have other common problems while you're pregnant, like a cold or the flu, that aren't caused by your pregnancy. You can use home treatment for these illnesses too. But make sure to talk to your doctor if your symptoms get more serious, such as coughing up blood or not being able to drink enough fluids (dehydrated).

While most problems that occur during pregnancy are minor, you may have more serious symptoms that you need to talk to your doctor about. Your symptoms may be related to:

  • Miscarriage. Symptoms may include:
    • Vaginal bleeding. In the first trimester, it may be a sign of miscarriage or preterm labor.
    • Tissue that passes through the vagina. When you pass tissue, you may also pass large blood clots. If you can, collect the tissue and bring it with you when you see your doctor.
    • Cramps.
  • Preterm labor. Symptoms may include:
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge or fluid leaking from your vagina.
    • Belly, pelvic, or back (flank) pain. This pain may come and go regularly.
    • Contractions that start before the 37th week of pregnancy.
  • Infection. Symptoms may include:
    • Fever. Mild fevers that last only a short time usually aren't a concern. A fever that doesn't get better with home treatment or doesn't improve after several days may mean that you have a more serious problem.
    • Nausea and vomiting or diarrhea. Vomiting during pregnancy is more likely to be serious if it happens more than 2 or 3 times a day or if you also have pelvic pain or vaginal bleeding.
    • Urinary problems, such as a urinary tract infection or not being able to urinate.
    • Open skin sores or blisters and itching.
  • Changes in your blood pressure that may mean you have preeclampsia. This problem may cause:
    • Abnormal swelling, especially in your face, hands, or feet. Preeclampsia is more likely when new swelling starts suddenly and you have a sudden weight gain of more than 2 lb (0.9 kg) over a 24-hour period during your third trimester, especially if your blood pressure is high.
    • A new or different headache.
    • Vision problems such as blurred or double vision.
    • Pain in the upper right belly.
    • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Blood clots. The risk of blood clots increases during and after pregnancy. This can happen because of changes in hormones or blood flow, or because you are moving less during pregnancy or after having a baby. Symptoms may include:
    • Sudden chest pain, trouble breathing, and coughing up blood. These are symptoms of a blood clot in your lung (pulmonary embolism).
    • Pain in the arm, calf, back of the knee, thigh, or groin, or redness and swelling in the arm or leg. These are symptoms of a blood clot in your arm or leg (deep vein thrombosis).
  • Cholestasis of pregnancy. When bile doesn't flow out of the liver very well, it can cause a liver problem that can make your skin feel very itchy. This problem doesn't cause any serious health problems for you. But it may cause problems for your baby. Your doctor will want to watch you and your baby closely.
  • Depression. If you are tearful, sad, or anxious, or if you have big mood swings, talk to your doctor. If you are depressed during your pregnancy, you may have a hard time bonding with your baby after delivery. Depression can be treated so that you and your baby will be able to bond.

Make a plan with your doctor about where to go for care if you have problems while pregnant and can't reach your doctor. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may want you to go to an emergency department or a maternity center.

During the days and weeks after delivery (postpartum period), you can expect that your body will change as it returns to its nonpregnant condition. As with pregnancy changes, postpartum changes are different for each person. Some problems, such as high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, or diabetes, may continue after delivery. You may need to follow up with your doctor about these problems after your baby is born.

Check Your Symptoms

Are you pregnant?
This topic covers problems directly related to pregnancy as well as symptoms that may be more serious for pregnant women.
Yes
Pregnancy
No
Pregnancy
How old are you?
Less than 12 years
Less than 12 years
12 years or older
12 years or older
Are you male or female?
Male
Male
Female
Female

The medical assessment of symptoms is based on the body parts you have.

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as "male" and once as "female"). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.
Do you have symptoms of shock?
Yes
Symptoms of shock
No
Symptoms of shock
How many weeks pregnant are you?
Less than 20 weeks
Less than 20 weeks pregnant
20 weeks to 23 weeks
20 weeks to 23 weeks pregnant
24 weeks to 37 weeks
24 weeks to 37 weeks pregnant
More than 37 weeks
More than 37 weeks pregnant
Is the umbilical cord or the baby's foot bulging into your vagina?
If this is happening, you will have other symptoms too. Fluid may be leaking from your vagina because the amniotic sac has broken, or you may be having contractions or other signs of labor.
Yes
Umbilical cord or baby's foot bulging into vagina
No
Umbilical cord or baby's foot bulging into vagina
Is your baby moving less than usual?
"Moving less" means moving or kicking fewer than 10 times in 2 hours. Some babies do this at certain times of the day.
Yes
Decreased movement of baby
No
Decreased movement of baby
This means more than just mild contractions that you can talk through or that are irregular or may even stop for a while.
Yes
Signs of labor
No
Signs of labor
Yes
Symptoms of preterm labor
No
Symptoms of preterm labor
Have you had any vaginal bleeding in the last 48 hours?
Yes
Vaginal bleeding
No
Vaginal bleeding
When this bleeding was heaviest, was it severe, moderate, mild, or minimal?
Severe
Severe bleeding
Moderate
Moderate bleeding
Mild
Mild bleeding
Minimal
Minimal bleeding
Have you had a seizure?
Yes
Seizure
No
Seizure
Are you having trouble breathing (more than a stuffy nose)?
Yes
Difficulty breathing more than a stuffy nose
No
Difficulty breathing more than a stuffy nose
Would you describe the problem as severe, moderate, or mild?
Severe
Severe difficulty breathing
Moderate
Moderate difficulty breathing
Mild
Mild difficulty breathing
Are you nauseated or vomiting, or do you have diarrhea?
Nauseated means you feel sick to your stomach, like you are going to vomit.
Yes
Nausea or vomiting or diarrhea
No
Nausea or vomiting or diarrhea
Do you think you may be dehydrated?
Yes
May be dehydrated
No
May be dehydrated
Are the symptoms severe, moderate, or mild?
Severe
Severe dehydration
Moderate
Moderate dehydration
Mild
Mild dehydration
Are you having trouble drinking enough to replace the fluids you've lost?
Little sips of fluid usually are not enough. You need to be able to take in and keep down plenty of fluids.
Yes
Unable to maintain fluid intake
No
Able to maintain fluid intake
Is there more than a trace of blood in your vomit?
Yes
More than a trace of blood in vomit
No
More than a trace of blood in vomit
Are you vomiting more than 3 times a day?
Yes
Vomiting more than 3 times a day
No
Vomiting more than 3 times a day
Have you lost at least 0.5 lb (0.2 kg) in the past 48 hours (2 days) or at least 2 lbs 9oz (1 kg) in the past week?
Yes
Weight loss
No
Weight loss
Do you have a new headache that is different than the types of headaches you are used to?
Yes
New or different headache
No
New or different headache
Do you have a severe headache that started suddenly and is the worst headache of your life?
This probably would not be like any headache you have had before.
Yes
Sudden, severe headache
No
Sudden, severe headache
How bad is the pain on a scale of 0 to 10, if 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine?
8 to 10: Severe pain
Severe pain
5 to 7: Moderate pain
Moderate pain
1 to 4: Mild pain
Mild pain
Are you having new vision problems, such as blurred or decreased vision or flashes of light?
Yes
Vision problems
No
Vision problems
Do you have pain in your belly, pelvic area, or back?
Yes
Belly, pelvic, or back pain
No
Belly, pelvic, or back pain
How bad is the pain on a scale of 0 to 10, if 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine?
8 to 10: Severe pain
Severe pain
5 to 7: Moderate pain
Moderate pain
1 to 4: Mild pain
Mild pain
Do you have belly pain (not labor)?
Yes
Belly pain (not labor)
No
Belly pain (not labor)
Do you have pain in the upper right side of your belly?
It may help to think about four areas of the belly: upper right, upper left, lower right, and lower left.
Yes
Pain in upper right belly
No
Pain in upper right belly
Do you have pain and swelling in one calf or pain when you breathe?
These can be warning signs of a blood clot moving from the leg to the lung (called a pulmonary embolism).
Yes
Pain and swelling in one calf or pain with breathing
No
Pain and swelling in one calf or pain with breathing
Is fluid other than blood leaking from your vagina?
Yes
Fluid leaking from vagina
No
Fluid leaking from vagina
Have you passed any tissue through your vagina?
Collect the tissue if you can, and bring it with you when you see your doctor.
Yes
Passed tissue into vagina
No
Passed tissue into vagina
In the past week, have you had an injury, such as a blow to the belly or a hard fall?
Yes
Past week had a blow to the belly or a hard fall
No
Past week had a blow to the belly or a hard fall
Do you suspect that the injury may have been caused by abuse?
This is a standard question that we ask in certain topics. It may not apply to you. But asking it of everyone helps us to get people the help they need.
Yes
Injury may have been caused by abuse
No
Injury may have been caused by abuse
Did the injury involve a direct blow to your belly?
Examples of this type of injury are a fall in which you landed hard on your belly or a car accident that caused a forceful hit to your belly.
Yes
Direct blow to belly
No
Direct blow to belly
Did the injury happen within the past 24 hours?
Yes
Injury within past 24 hours
No
Injury within past 24 hours
Do you have any new vaginal bleeding, belly pain, or pelvic pain that may be related to the injury?
Yes
New vaginal bleeding, belly pain or pelvic pain
No
New vaginal bleeding, belly pain or pelvic pain
Do you think you may have a fever?
Yes
Possible fever
No
Possible fever
Did you take your temperature?
Yes
Temperature taken
No
Temperature taken
How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.
NOTE: Most people have an average body temperature of about 98.6°F (37°C). But it can vary by a degree or more and still be considered normal. If a low body temperature is your only symptom, it’s usually not something to worry about. But be sure to watch for other symptoms.
High: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral
High fever: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral
Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral
Moderate fever: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral
Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral
Mild fever: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral
How high do you think the fever is?
High
Feels fever is high
Moderate
Feels fever is moderate
Mild or low
Feels fever is mild
How long have you had a fever?
Less than 2 days (48 hours)
Fever for less than 2 days
At least 2 days but less than 1 week
Fever for at least 2 days but less than 1 week
1 week or more
Fever for 1 week or more
Do you have a health problem or take medicine that weakens your immune system?
Yes
Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems
No
Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems
Do you have shaking chills or very heavy sweating?
Shaking chills are a severe, intense form of shivering. Heavy sweating means that sweat is pouring off you or soaking through your clothes.
Yes
Shaking chills or heavy sweating
No
Shaking chills or heavy sweating
Do you have problems with urination?
Yes
Problems with urination
No
Problems with urination
Are you able to urinate at all?
Yes
Able to urinate
No
Unable to urinate
Yes
Symptoms of kidney infection
No
Symptoms of kidney infection
Yes
Symptoms of bladder infection
No
Symptoms of bladder infection
Yes
Symptoms of a vaginal infection
No
Symptoms of a vaginal infection
Do you have swelling in the face, hands, or feet?
Yes
Swelling in the face, hands, or feet
No
Swelling in the face, hands, or feet
Do you have ongoing swelling?
Yes
Ongoing swelling
No
Ongoing swelling
Do you have any other symptoms you're concerned about?
These could include things like skin problems or digestive issues.
Yes
Concern about other symptoms
No
Concern about other symptoms
Are you having problems with constipation or heartburn?
Yes
Problems with constipation or heartburn
No
Problems with constipation or heartburn
Has home treatment helped?
Yes
Home treatment helped
No
Home treatment has not helped

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For adults and children age 12 and older, these are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild, according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth) temperature

  • High: 104°F (40°C) and higher
  • Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C)
  • Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5°F (0.3°C) to 1°F (0.6°C) lower than an oral temperature.

Ear temperature

  • High: 105°F (40.6°C) and higher
  • Moderate: 101.4°F (38.6°C) to 104.9°F (40.5°C)
  • Mild: 101.3°F (38.5°C) and lower

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 103°F (39.5°C) and higher
  • Moderate: 99.4°F (37.4°C) to 102.9°F (39.4°C)
  • Mild: 99.3°F (37.3°C) and lower

Pain in adults and older children

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that you can't stand it for more than a few hours, can't sleep, and can't do anything else except focus on the pain.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days. Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it's severe when it's there.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.

Symptoms of difficulty breathing can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel a little out of breath but still be able to talk (mild difficulty breathing), or you may be so out of breath that you cannot talk at all (severe difficulty breathing).
  • It may be getting hard to breathe with activity (mild difficulty breathing), or you may have to work very hard to breathe even when you’re at rest (severe difficulty breathing).

Severe trouble breathing means:

  • You cannot talk at all.
  • You have to work very hard to breathe.
  • You feel like you can't get enough air.
  • You do not feel alert or cannot think clearly.

Moderate trouble breathing means:

  • It's hard to talk in full sentences.
  • It's hard to breathe with activity.

Mild trouble breathing means:

  • You feel a little out of breath but can still talk.
  • It's becoming hard to breathe with activity.

Symptoms of preterm labor may include:

  • Mild or menstrual-like cramps, with or without diarrhea.
  • A feeling of pressure in your pelvis or lower belly.
  • A steady, dull ache in your lower back, pelvis, lower belly, or thighs.
  • Changes in your vaginal discharge.
  • Regular contractions for an hour. This means about 6 or more in 1 hour, even after you have had a glass of water and are resting.

Severe vaginal bleeding means that you are soaking 1 or 2 pads or tampons in 1 or 2 hours, unless that is normal for you. For most women, passing clots of blood from the vagina and soaking through their usual pads or tampons every hour for 2 or more hours is not normal and is considered severe. If you are pregnant: You may have a gush of blood or pass a clot, but if the bleeding stops, it is not considered severe.

Moderate bleeding means that you are soaking more than 1 pad or tampon in 3 hours.

Mild bleeding means that you are soaking less than 1 pad or tampon in more than 3 hours.

Minimal vaginal bleeding means "spotting" or a few drops of blood.

If you're not sure if a fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • You feel very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers you've ever had. High fevers are not that common, especially in adults.

With a moderate fever:

  • You feel warm or hot.
  • You know you have a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • You may feel a little warm.
  • You think you might have a fever, but you're not sure.

Symptoms of a kidney infection may include:

  • Pain in the flank, which is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back.
  • Fever or chills.
  • Pain or burning when you urinate.
  • A frequent urge to urinate without being able to pass much urine.
  • Belly pain.

Symptoms of a bladder infection may include:

  • Pain or burning when you urinate.
  • A frequent urge to urinate without being able to pass much urine.
  • Blood in the urine.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in adults are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS.
  • Long-term alcohol and drug problems.
  • Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Other medicines used to treat autoimmune disease.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Not having a spleen.

During pregnancy, swelling that may be a sign of a more serious problem may include:

  • Weight gain of 2 lb (0.9 kg) or more during a 24-hour period.
  • New and increasing swelling, especially in your face, hands, or feet.
  • Swelling in your feet that does not improve even after you lie on your side for several hours.

You can get dehydrated when you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel tired and edgy (mild dehydration), or you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe dehydration).
  • You may pass less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe dehydration).

Severe dehydration means:

  • Your mouth and eyes may be extremely dry.
  • You may pass little or no urine for 12 or more hours.
  • You may not feel alert or be able to think clearly.
  • You may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
  • You may pass out.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • You may be a lot more thirsty than usual.
  • Your mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
  • You may pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
  • You may feel dizzy when you stand or sit up.

Mild dehydration means:

  • You may be more thirsty than usual.
  • You may pass less urine than usual.

Signs that you are in labor include:

  • Regular contractions for at least 1 hour. This means about 4 or more contractions in 20 minutes, or about 8 or more in a single hour.
  • A sudden release of fluid from the vagina.

"Bloody show" is blood-tinged mucus that will pass out of the vagina for some women as the cervix begins to open (dilate) and thin (efface). On its own, however, this is not a definite sign that you are in labor.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may quickly occur after a sudden illness or injury.

Adults and older children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Feeling very dizzy or lightheaded, like you may pass out.
  • Feeling very weak or having trouble standing.
  • Not feeling alert or able to think clearly. You may be confused, restless, fearful, or unable to respond to questions.

Symptoms of a vaginal infection may include:

  • Vaginal itching.
  • Vaginal discharge that is not normal for you.
  • Red, irritated skin in the vaginal area.
  • Pain when you urinate.
  • Pain or bleeding when you have sex.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don't want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren't serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Get down on your knees, bend forward, and put your head on the floor so your buttocks are higher than your head. Stay in this position until help arrives.

Sometimes people don't want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren't serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Self-care

Managing morning sickness

If you have morning sickness, try these tips to feel better.

  • Eat five or six small meals a day.

    It's helpful to always have some food in your stomach, but not too much.

  • Eat a small snack first thing in the morning.

    Keep a few crackers by your bed, so you can eat them before you get out of bed.

  • Drink lots of fluids.

    Peppermint or ginger tea can be good choices. Water and sports drinks are also good.

  • Try to avoid foods and smells that make you feel sick.

    These often include spicy or greasy foods, citrus juice, milk, coffee, and tea with caffeine. Try to connect what you're eating with the times when you feel worst. Even if you have to give up pizza for a short time, it can be worth it!

  • Take your prenatal vitamins at night.

    And make sure you have something in your stomach when you take them.

  • Talk to your doctor or midwife about other things that may help.

    If you're taking iron supplements, ask if they're needed. (Iron can make nausea worse.) And ask if vitamin B6, doxylamine, or ginger might be a good idea.

  • Try acupressure wrist bands.

    Some women find that these anti-nausea wristbands help. You can buy them at most drugstores.

If you have abnormal vaginal symptoms, talk with your doctor about your symptoms before you try any home treatments or nonprescription medicines.

Try these tips to help manage vaginal problems during pregnancy.

  • Avoid vaginal sex so that sore vaginal tissues can heal.
  • Don't scratch the vaginal area.

    Relieve itching with cold-water compresses or cool baths. Warm baths may also relieve pain and itching.

  • Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing.
    • Stay away from nylon and synthetics. They hold heat and moisture close to the skin, which makes it easier for an infection to start.
    • You may want to remove your pajama bottoms or underwear when you sleep.
  • Don't douche.

Treating heartburn

Treatment for pregnant women with heartburn focuses first on making lifestyle changes, like changing what and how you eat, and on taking nonprescription antacids. Some doctors may also recommend a prescription medicine to treat heartburn.

When to call for help during self-care

Call a doctor if any of the following occur during self-care at home:

  • Abnormal or increased bleeding.
  • Weakness or lightheadedness.
  • Belly pain.
  • Swelling of the face, hands, or feet.
  • A severe headache.
  • Vomiting that gets worse or continues even with home treatment.
  • Urinary problems.
  • Fever.
  • Heartburn that continues even with home treatment.
  • Symptoms occur more often or are more severe.

Learn more

Preparing For Your Appointment

Credits

Current as of: February 23, 2022

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine
Elizabeth T. Russo MD - Internal Medicine
E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal Medicine

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. Learn how we develop our content.