NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital offers comprehensive medical, surgical, and supportive care for adults and children with the following types of congenital heart disease:
Atrial septal defect is an opening in the wall between the right and left atria (chambers of the heart) that results in abnormal blood flow through the heart. One example is patent foramen ovale, a very small opening in the atrial septum. Left untreated, atrial septal defects can cause enlargement of the right side of the heart, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythm), and, in some cases, pulmonary hypertension (elevated blood pressure in the arteries to the lungs).
Atrioventricular canals are large openings between the right and left sides of the heart. Usually, one large common valve replaces the normal mitral and tricuspid valves. Left untreated, this defect can cause poor growth, malnourishment, enlargement of the heart, and pulmonary hypertension.
Coarctation of the aorta is a constriction in the aorta that causes blood pressure to increase above the narrowed area while limiting blood flow to the body. The aorta is the largest artery and distributes oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
Ebstein's anomaly involves the tricuspid valve, which separates the right upper chamber (right atrium) from the right lower chamber (right ventricle) of the heart. The valve's "leaflets," which normally open to allow blood to flow from the upper to lower chamber and close to prevent it from flowing backward, do not function properly. Blood may backflow into the upper chamber and cause swelling in the heart and/or fluid buildup in the lungs or liver.
In patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the left side of the heart is incompletely formed. This defect is typically repaired with a technique known as the "Norwood procedure." NewYork-Presbyterian congenital heart surgeons are among the most experienced in the country performing this procedure, and they achieve some of the best outcomes.
Ductus arteriosus is a vessel that allows blood to bypass a baby's lungs before birth. Within a few days after birth, the vessel typically closes. But in babies with patent ductus arteriosus, the vessel remains open and interferes with blood flow between the aorta and pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery stenosis is a narrowing of the pulmonary artery, which carries blood into the lungs so that they may be infused with oxygen. Without enough oxygen-rich blood, the body cannot function properly. To overcome the lack of oxygen-rich blood, the heart tries to push more blood through the pulmonary artery, which can raise pressure in the right ventricle and damage the heart.
Single ventricle is a collective term to describe defects such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood mix in a single chamber of the heart. Our pediatric cardiac surgeons have expertise in the Fontan procedure, which directs oxygen-poor blood directly to the pulmonary artery and lungs. The single ventricle is reserved for collecting oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumping it to the aorta and the rest of the body.
A ruptured Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm causes a communication between the aortic sinus and the atrium or right ventricle. The abnormality is often congenital, but may also result from endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart) or trauma. Surgical repair is generally advised and requires special expertise, such as that found at NewYork-Presbyterian.
Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic defect (where the heart delivers less oxygen-rich blood to the body than normal). This complex congenital condition consists of four developmental defects that require surgical correction early in childhood. Many patients with this disorder also require replacement of the pulmonary valve as adults. NewYork-Presbyterian is renowned for our experience treating patients with Tetralogy of Fallot.
In patients with transposition of the great arteries, the anatomical positions of the pulmonary artery and aorta are switched, so that the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle. This causes oxygen-poor blood to be circulated to the body instead of oxygen-rich blood, a life-threatening medical emergency requiring immediate treatment. Our surgeons have pioneered the innovative arterial switch procedure, which re-establishes normal anatomy and function while reducing the risk of complications associated with other surgical approaches.
Valve repair refers to the repair of a damaged mitral, tricuspid, or aortic valve. Re-repair refers to the repair of a previous surgery. It is not unusual for patients who had valve repair surgery for congenital heart disease as children to require another surgical repair or replacement as adults. NewYork-Presbyterian's surgeons have exceptionally high experience performing these procedures. Examples include repair or replacement of the aortic valve in patients with congenital aortic stenosis or other disorders affecting this valve, and repair or replacement of the pulmonary valve in patients with pulmonary atresia (a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly).
In patients with ventricular septal defect, there is an opening in the wall that separates the two ventricles of the heart, causing oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood. Our surgeons are skilled in surgically correcting these defects.